Metrics details Abstract In recent decades, cognitive and behavioral knowledge in dogs seems to have developed considerably, as deduced from the published peer-reviewed articles.
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However, to date, the worldwide trend of scientific research on dog cognition and behavior has never been explored using a bibliometric approach, while the evaluation of scientific research has increasingly become important in recent years. We found that, afterthere has been a sharp increase in scientific publications on dogs.
The period between and is taken as the study period, and a backward analysis was also carried out. We analyzed all information related to sources, countries, affiliations, co-occurrence network, thematic maps, collaboration network, and world map.
The results scientifically support the common perception that dogs are attracting the interest of scholars much more now than before and more than the how to lower high blood pressure for dot physical trend in cognitive and behavioral studies.
Both, the changes in research themes and new research themes, contributed to the increase in the scientific production on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of dogs. Our investigation may benefit the researchers interested in the field of cognitive and behavioral science in dogs, thus favoring future research work and promoting interdisciplinary collaborations. Introduction The domestication of wolves was probably the first human successful attempt aimed to control an animal.
After the first stage, in which primitive dogs were domesticated from their wild ancestors—the wolves, dogs were artificially selected resulting into the modern breeds, based on different specialization and morphology Wayne and Ostrander However, several aspects of this history remain unclear, despite scientific efforts in hirtelen magas vernyomas tunetei dog evolution.
Under dispute is the place of the domestication process of dogs—from Europe or southern East Asia—as uncertainly lies in the divergence between wolves and dogs Thalmann et al.
Many doubts also surround the question of how domestication of dogs began and how this process has impacted cognition and behavior in dogs Hare et al.
They are now increasingly involved in different working and sporting activities, and their presence in our homes as pets is also in a growing trend in many countries see, for example, Murray et al. Pet dogs could promote the welfare of the human family they live with, whereas working dogs are an integral part of social functioning. Several studies demonstrated that keeping dogs has a positive effect on our physical and mental health Levine et al.
Altogether, dogs have become an important social phenomenon attracting scientific interest Morell There are different reasons why canine research is advantageous beyond the easy access to the subjects for experimental purposes.
The scholar’s best friend: research trends in dog cognitive and behavioral studies | SpringerLink
They show many similarities with humans Scandurra et al. Indeed, there are functional parallels in a range of behavioral features, which are not shared with the closest human relatives, the great apes Topál et al. The success of dogs as behavioral models also relies on their origin from ancestors with high social behavior, the adaptiveness in living in the anthropogenic niches and the socialization with humans during ontogeny Kubinyi et al. A comprehensive study by Bensky et al.
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However, a worldwide trend of scientific research on dog cognition and behavior has never been explored to date using a bibliometric approach Chenwhile the evaluation of scientific research has increasingly become important in recent years. Bibliometric analysis is a useful tool to measure the output of scientific research, using specific indicators to obtain information about the research trends in different fields De Battisti and Salini ; Wallin There are pure cognitive studies, which analyze the brain functioning through brain imaging e.
However, most of the papers dealing with cognition also include behavioral outcomes. Indeed, brain imaging studies often analyze brain functioning, while the experimental subjects are performing various behavioral tasks.
Moreover, many studies provide data for the understanding how stimuli are processed i. Since there is evidence of a growing trend in scientific production Fanelli and Larivièrethe first goal of the present paper was to verify whether the dog cognitive and behavioral studies show a growing trend exceeding those of cognitive and behavioral sciences in general.
Our second goal was to understand whether the growth of scientific production in dog cognition and behavior was simply related to an increased research effort in the same research themes or changes in research themes and the contribution of new research themes to this trend.
The further aim was to provide a bibliometric analysis related to sources, countries, affiliations, co-occurrence network, thematic maps, collaboration network, and world maps of the scientific activity related to the cognitive and behavioral studies on dogs. We also attempted to identify the most frequent and impactful journals, countries, research institutes, and their relationship at social and conceptual levels.
Overall the information reported in this study could be useful to the researchers in locating the topics that need more scientific efforts, giving information to help further develop the already thriving growing field of dog cognition and behavior, thus fostering future interdisciplinary collaborations.
We used bibliometrix, a new R-tool for comprehensive science mapping analysis Aria and Cuccurullowhich provides various options for importing bibliographic data from scientific databases and performing bibliometrics analysis related to different items.
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We employed bibliometrix to analyze the sources, countries, and affiliations. It allowed us to define the structure of the topic at the conceptual level based on the co-occurrence network and thematic maps and social structure as gathered by collaboration network and world maps.
PRISMA consists of a checklist describing the protocol adopted for selecting the collection of articles used in a systematic literature review. It is used to ensure that the selection process is replicable and transparent. Data were collected in January TS stands for topic, that is, the search of the mentioned words in the title, abstract, and keyword lists.
In our search, we selected original articles in the English language, including experiments i. The choices that did not match were resolved involving a third independent researcher and the final decision was taken by the concensus among researchers Cuccurullo et al.
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The inclusion criteria concerning cognitive and behavioral sciences are reported in Table 1. Table 1 Research considered for the selection Full size table Data loading and converting Numerous software tools support science mapping analysis; however, many of these do not assist scholars in a complete recommended workflow.
Starting from our final collection, we loaded the data i. Thus, we chose to use this point to perform the following separate analysis on dogs a posteriori. This choice allowed us to test whether the exceeding trend of dog studies was simply due to an increased effort in the same topics or new topics contributed to this increase.
We analyzed the article collection using different aggregation levels. Regarding journals, bibliometrix provides many indicators, such as the number of publications, h-index Hirschg-index Egghem-index von Bohlen und Halbachand the total number of citations.
Co-occurrence network, collaboration network, thematic maps, and world maps are also provided. A network is a graphical representation of item co-occurrences in a set of documents. A thematic map is a Cartesian representation of the term clusters identified performing a cluster analysis on a co-occurrence network. It allows for easier interpretation of the research themes developed in a framework. The analyses were based on KeyWords Plus, which are the words or phrases that frequently appear in the titles of the references cited in an article but do not appear in the title of the article itself.
They are extracted from the papers using a statistical algorithm, based on the cited references in the article.
The scholar’s best friend: research trends in dog cognitive and behavioral studies
This process is unique to Clarivate Analytics databases. The algorithm is based on a supervised machine learning approach that automatically assigns a set of keywords, namely, Keyword Plus, from a glossary defined by a team of experts. Moreover, a comparison between Keywords Plus and Author Keywords performed at the scientific and the document levels yields more Keywords Plus terms than Author Keywords, and it is more descriptive Zhang et al. Based on Keywords Plus, we obtained the co-occurrence network, which identifies the relationship between the keywords.
Each keyword represents a node, or vertex, of the network, and the edge connecting two nodes is proportional to the number of times two keywords are included in the same keyword list.
Stronger is an edge, higher is the relationship between two keywords within a paper Tijssen and Van Raanthus allowing to provide a graphic visualization of potential relationships among keywords.
In the network, it is possible to identify groups of strongly interconnected terms, which represent themes or topics. Although different algorithms exist to identify these groups, this study used the Louvain community detection algorithm Blondel et al.
The X-axis represents the centrality, that is, the degree of interaction of a network cluster in comparison with other clusters appearing in the same graph. It can be read as a measure of the importance of a theme in the development of the research field. According to these authors, the graphical representation of themes on the four quadrants in which they are plotted allows identification of the following proprieties: 1 Motor themes first quadrant : the cluster network is characterized by high centrality and high density, meaning that they are well developed and important for the structuring of a research field; 2 Highly developed and isolated themes second quadrant : they are characterized by high density and low centrality, meaning that they are of limited importance for the field since they do not share important external links with other themes; 3 Emerging or declining themes hyporenalis hipertónia quadrant : they have low centrality and low density, meaning that they are weakly developed and marginal.
The identification of emerging or declining trends of a theme requires a longitudinal analysis, through a thematic evolution Aria and Cuccurullo : splitting the timespan into different timeslices allow to identify the trajectory, whereby a direction toward the top of the map over time identifies an emerging trend while a direction toward the lower left quadrant would identify a declining trend; 4 Basic and transversal themes fourth quadrant : they are characterized by high centrality and low density, namely, they are important concerning general topics that are transversal to different research areas of the field.
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The scientific collaboration analysis was used to identify the social structure of the field, through the application of the social network analysis Newmanapplying it at an aggregated level i. It is evident that increasing trend in research on dogs starts from Full size image Data related to the main information on dogs are reported in Table 2.
This means that the scientific production on dog cognitive and behavioral studies increased sixfold. However, these data support the view that there is a considerable increase in the researchers working on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of dogs. It also appears that the contribution of a single researcher who co-authored remains almost unchanged, which means that the research effort by each researcher how to lower high blood pressure for dot physical not generally increased over time.
The principal component analysis PCAcarried out on the number of publications, h-index, g-index, m-index, and the total number of citations, highlighted a single principal component explaining Full data for the sources are reported in Online Resources 1 and 2. A slightly less engagement on the part of the Netherlands affected its ranking, pushing it down from the ten to the fifteenth position.
However, this country has only earned two positions, thus maintaining its almost unchanged status in terms of its contribution. Besides Eötvös Loránd University of Hungary, which has always been the major contributor to developing dog cognitive and behavioral sciences, all affiliations in the top ten were new, with the University of Vienna and the University of Milan occupying the second and third place, respectively, in the list.
The list of the most productive affiliations can be found in Online Resources 5 and 6. A how to lower high blood pressure for dot physical was characterized by high centrality and high density and was positioned in the first quadrant as a motor theme.
Another cluster was in the fourth quadrant, characterized by high centrality and a lower density with respect to the two previous clusters. It was a basic and transversal well-developed theme.
The X axis represents the centrality i. The Y axis symbolizes the density i. Accordingly, the first quadrant identifies motor themes i. A cluster in the first quadrant was characterized by high centrality and high density and included motor themes in dog cognitive and behavioral studies.
The two clusters in the third quadrant were characterized by low centrality and low density, which meant that they were weakly developed marginal themes. Accordingly, the first quadrant identifies Motor themes i. Hungary and Austria were at the third position, with several publications in common. It is noteworthy to underlines the radical increase in the collaboration network of the UK. The list of the most collaborative countries can be found in Online Resources 7 and 8.